martes, agosto 31, 2010

ECONOMÍAS DE PAÍSES EN AMÉRICA LATINA SE SOMETEN AL MERCADO INTERNACIONAL

Nuestros países no caminan al socialismo del siglo XXI y reinventan el neoextractivismo, aseguran en el II Foro sobre las Industrias Extractivas

ROSA ROJAS - La Jornada de México

Plataformaenergetica.org (La Paz, 27/08/10).- La economía de las repúblicas americanas es rentista, con una suerte de ADN extractivista, con una inserción sumisa en el mercado internacional que se especializa en perder en la medida que exporta materias primas, aseguró aquí el ex presidente de la Asamblea Constituyente de Ecuador, Alberto Acosta.

El también investigador de la Flacso participó en el segundo foro de la Red Latinoamericana sobre las Industrias Extractivas, que reunió a una treintena de expertos de países del Cono Sur y México. Ahí apuntó que nuestros países se han acostumbrado a vivir de la renta de la naturaleza, atados a las demandas del capital y como exportadores de materias primas sujetos a un crecimiento empobrecedor.

Planteó que esto ocurre en países con gobiernos de derecha como en los que tienen gobiernos progresistas, en Ecuador, Bolivia, Venezuela, lo mismo que en Perú y Colombia, dijo, señalando que en nuestros países no estamos caminando hacia el socialismo del siglo XXI sino reinventando un neoextractivismo.

Mencionó que en Ecuador y Bolivia se hablan del buen vivir y de una relación armónica con la naturaleza, pero están atrapados en el desarrollismo, en medio de una disputa por la distribución de la renta de la explotación de sus recursos naturales no renovables e incluso llegando al extremo de convertir en no renovables algunos que eran renovables, como la pesca, por la sobre explotación.

Citó el caso de Ecuador, donde se están renegociando los contratos petroleros para conseguir 80 por ciento de la renta petrolera, que antes se llevaban las transnacionales, pero ahora entran las empresas petroleras estatales a operar con la misma lógica que las transnacionales, incluso en su relación con las comunidades indígenas.

Los impactos ecológicos son cada vez más graves, indicó y ahora el presidente Rafael Correa se apresta a abrirle la puerta a la gran minería a cielo abierto, lo que está ocurriendo también en otros países donde la renta petrolera se utiliza no para el desarrollo productivo sino para políticas clientelares, creándose una bonocracia sin que haya esfuerzos reales para enfrentar en forma estructural la pobreza.

Además hay fuertes tendencias a la desterritorialización, que es la ausencia del Estado en las zonas petroleras, en la medida en que son las empresas petroleras las que se hacen cargo de la salud, la educación y otros servicios, y cuando las empresas no cumplen y vienen las protestas públicas, entonces aparece el Estado con la represión a los movimientos populares.

Acosta apuntó que el presidente Correa, pero los de otros países también, ahora dicen se acabó el petróleo y qué se va a hacer ahora si no se cuenta con los ingresos de la minería a gran escala. Pero hay otras alternativas para el financiamiento público, como una profunda reforma tributaria o la revisión de la estructura de subsidios que benefician más a los más ricos, citó.

Mencionó que se requiere una transición gradual a una economía post extractivista y de ello dan cuenta los movimientos de resistencia que han surgido en Ecuador, como el indígena, que llevó a la propuesta de Correa de no explotar el petróleo en la zona de Yasuní a cambio de una contribución de corresponsabilidad con el medio ambiente de los países subdesarrollados, que compense lo que el país dejará de percibir al no extraer el petróleo y conservar así una de las áreas con mayor biodiversidad del mundo.

El especialista apuntó que la explotación petrolera de Texaco dejó es su país una deuda ambiental de 27 mil millones de dólares. Contaminación ambiental, enfermedades y pobreza. Y esa lógica no ha cambiado con la intervención de una empresa estatal porque se llega al extremo de inyectar agua dulce en los pozos para la extracción del petróleo, contaminando los mantos acuíferos que abastecen a la población.

*Aquí todas las notas y presentaciones del II FORO
http://www.plataformaenergetica.org/category/3/48

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